Neuroimmunology of the cervical autonomic nervous system
Daniel P. Cardinali and Ana I. Esquifino ( Argentina , Spain )
This article reviews several peripheral neuroendo- crine relationships in the cervical region, namely the effect of the sympathetic innervation on adenohypophysial, thyroid and parathyroid hormone release, and the effect ofparasym- pathetic innervation in thyroid and parathyroid glands. The possible pathways through which the central nervous system modulates the circadian organization of the immune response are also reviewed and the relative importance of circadian control of immune reactivity through local sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and of newoendocrine signals, like melatonin, is also discussed. Altogether the present article argues in favor of the concept that nerves arriving to the endocrine and lymphoid tissue constitute alternate pathways through which the brain controls immunoendocrine phenom ena.
Biomed Rev 1998; 9: 47-59
Received for publication 15 May 1998 and accepted 19 November 1998.
Corespondence and reprint requests to Dr Daniel P.Cardinali. Departamento de Fisiologia Facultad de Medicina, UBA. 1425 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Tel: 54 196 19866, Fax: 5419636287,